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Ceramics production of anabaptists and Haban ceramics in Záhorie

In the history of ceramic production, Záhorie had an important position, the production of which was stimulated by sufficient material, wood and fuel. Until the arrival of the anabaptists, ceramic production was concentrated on pottery, faience products were not generally known. During 16.-17th century, the anabaptists brought new methods and procedures in the processing and treatment of clay to western Slovakia and significantly influenced the overall shape and artistic diversity of ceramic products.

Initially, the production of anabaptists was oriented towards the nobility and bourgeois consumers, and faience products served for their decorative purposes for representative purposes. After 1620, after the expulsion of the anabaptists from Moravia, Slovakia became the main producer of the ceramics produced by them. An important milestone was the year 1685, when the anabaptists lost their joint ownership and began the process of assimilation with the domestic population. Faience products, originally intended for nobility and burghers, gradually became part of folk culture.

The most famous ceramics centers in western Slovakia were Boleráz, Častá, Dechtice, Dobrá Voda, Košolná, Moravský Svätý Ján, Sobotište, Veľké Leváre, Stupava and Smolenice, of which Sobotište dominated during the 17th century. The process of Slovakization Haban faience, had begun in late 17th century, continued during the 18th century (the so-called Haban-Slovak period) and culminated in the 19th century (the so-called posthaban period). The genuine ceramics of the anabaptists can therefore only be mentioned until the end of the 17th century, when there were fraternal courts governed by joint management of unified property.

Terms of Haban and Anabaptists faience

These are terms referring to the ceramic manufacture of Anabaptists (Anabaptist) immigrants and their descendants, the production of which is characterized by the glazing of containers with lead and lead-tin coatings forming a glassy coating on the surface of the container. Generally, the concepts of Haban and anabaptists faience are understood as synonyms, but several authors distinguish them. In Slovakia, the term “anabaptist faience” defines the oldest production of anabaptists, defined by the years 1622-1685 (from the year of their arrival from Moravia to Slovakia after the abolition of collective management). Haban faience is defined by the years 1685-1730 (after forced recatholization).